top of page


- based on TPI research -

The nature of our swing is defined by our state of body and mind. In many cases, swing dysfunctions are simply caused by physical restrictions. Thus, improving those physical limitations allow for more efficient, powerful and accurate swings. 

What is the nature of your swing?

25.3% Of The Players Have S-Posture

"S-Posture is a swing characteristic caused by the player creating too much arch in their lower back by sticking their tail bone out too much in the setup position. This excessive curvature in the lower back, or S-Posture, puts abnormally high stress on the muscles in the lower back and causes the abdominal muscles to relax. The deactivation of the core muscles can cause a loss of posture or "Reverse Spine Angle" during the backswing. This, in turn, puts the lower body out of position on the downswing and will affect the swings sequence of motion." - TPI

35.6% Of The Players Have A Chicken Wing

"C-Posture occurs when the shoulders are slumped forward at address and there is a definitive roundness to the back from the tailbone to the back of the neck. This posture can simply be the result of a poor set up position... Unfortunately, the majority of C-Postures are caused by a series of muscle imbalances and joint restrictions that are developed over many years." -TPI

64.3% Of Players Have A Loss Of Posture

"Loss of Posture is any significant alteration from the body’s original set up angles during the golf swing." - TPI

43.5% Of The Players Are Over-The-Top

"Over-the-Top is perhaps the most common swing characteristic among high handicap golfers... The club is thrown outside of the intended swing plane, with the club head approaching the ball in an out-to-in motion... It usually occurs because of overuse or over-dominance of the upper body during the downswing." - TPI

45.2% Of Players Have A Flat Shoulder Plane

"Flat Shoulder Plane or Turn describes the angle of the shoulders as the student turns to the top of their backswing... In the ideal swing, the shoulders would turn perpendicular to the tilt of the spine on the backswing. A flat shoulder plane is when the shoulders turn on a more horizontal plane than the axis of the original spine angle." - TPI

64.3% Of Players Early Extend

"Early Extension occurs when the hips and spine of a golfer start to go into extension or straighten up too early on the downswing... Early Extension causes the upper body to lift up allowing the golfer to maintain their balance. The lower body does not easily rotate through impact, instead it pushes forward and the person stands up." - TPI

37.2% Of The Players Sway

"A Sway is any excessive lower body lateral movement away from the target during the backswing that forces the weight to the outside of the back foot." - TPI

31.4% Of The Players Slide

"A Slide is any excessive lower body lateral movement toward the target during the downswing." - TPI

38.5% Of The Players Have A Reverse Spine

"A Reverse Spine Angle is any excessive upper body backward bend or excessive left lateral upper body bend during the backswing (for right handed golfers)... one of the prime causes of lower back pain because this swing characteristic puts excessive tension on the lower back due to forced inhibition of the abdominal musculature during the backswing." - TPI

32.3% Of The Players Hang Back

"Hanging Back is when a golfer does not shift their weight correctly back onto their front side on the downswing. Hanging back can also be caused by other swing characteristics such as a reverse pivot or sway." - TPI


35.6% Of The Players Have A Chicken Wing

"A Chicken Wing is a loss of extension or a breakdown of the lead elbow through the impact area." - TPI


55.9% Of The Players Early Release or Scoop

"Casting, Early Release and Scooping all refer to any premature release of the wrist angles during the downswing and through impact (like the casting of a fishing rod). The angle loss caused by releasing the club head too soon results in a weakened impact position with the lead wrist being cupped at ball strike. 
It is termed casting or “early release” when the club head and lead forearm are in a straight line prior to making contact with the ball. The term is scooping when the club head passes the hands through impact and the student is trying to lift the ball into the air. " - TPI

"Late Buckle is a swing characteristic that is seen immediately after impact. Normally, after a player makes contact with the ball and the club releases around their body, there is a corresponding lift or standing tall into the finish position. A Late Buckle is when a player actually dips down and drops after making contact with the ball. There is usually a sudden bend in the knees (or buckle of the lower body) that is clearly visible from both sides of the golfer." - TPI

"Forward Lunge refers to any excessive lateral move of the upper body towards the target during transition and the downswing. Normally, there is approximately a four inch lateral weight shift of the lower body towards the target in the downswing. The upper body tends to follow the lower body with about two to three inches of movement as well. In a forward lunge, there is an increased movement of the upper body towards the target, with the upper body having more movement than the lower body. This can create a very steep downward attack angle of the club and create very high shots with a lot of spin." - TPI


"Excessive Side Bend is when a golfer creates too much lateral flexion in their spine away from the target during the downswing and through impact. Thus placing the lumbar facets, pars interarticularis and intervertebral discs all at high risk of injury. Normal side bend with a driver at impact is 32 degrees for the thorax and 10 degrees for the pelvis [22˚ of trail side bend through impact].
An increased spine lateral bend can lead to blower back pain and repetitive strain injury. This can happen if the player tries to compensate for a limited hip mobility by excessively side bending the spine." - TPI


"Excessive Spine Rotation is when a golfer creates a large separation between their upper and lower body in the swing. This can occur in several phases of the swing. At the top of the Backswing, most tour players have separated their upper body by approximately 45˚ (38-51 degrees).
Golfers can compensate for restricted hip/lower body mobility by excessively increasing the spine rotation, in some cases going up to 60˚ of spine rotation. During transition, the normal spine rotation stretch is around 5˚. This is due to the stretch-shorten cycle in the oblique abdominals to increase power output. Players with lower back pain tend to increase their spine rotation by up to 15˚, putting unnecessary stress on the lumbar discs and facet joints." - TPI

Golf Characteristics: Services
bottom of page